100+ Indian History MCQs Question (Indian History and Art and Culture History)

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100+ Indian History MCQs Question (Indian History and Art and Culture History)

Indian History

1. Which among the following chronology is correct regarding four ‘samvatas’ ? 

(A) Gupta–Gregorian–Hizri–Saka 

(B) Gregorian–Saka–Hizri–Gupta 

(C) Saka–Gregorian–Hizri–Gupta 

(D) Hizri–Gupta–Gregorian–Saka 

Answer: (C) Samvat is any of the various Hindu calendars. In India, there are several calendars in use. The Saka Samvat is associated with 78 A.D; Gupta Samvat with 320 A.D; and Hijri Samvat with 622 A.D. The first year of Hijri era was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gre gory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February, 1582. 

2. The home of Gargi, Maitrey, and Kapila was at 

(A) Vidisha 

(B) Ujjain 

(C) Pataliputra 

(D) Mithila

Answer: (D) The name ‘Mithila‘ goes back to Puranic times. It occurs in the Mahabharata and in Pali literature. Ac cording to the Puranic tradition the name has been derived from that of Mithi (son of Nimi) King of Ay odhya and grandson of Manu who founded a king dom which was called Mithila after him. It is associat ed with Valmiki, Ashtavakra, Yajnavalkya, Udayana, Mahavira, Kanada, Jaimini and Kapila as well as the women philosophers, such as, Gargi, Maitreyi, Bha rati and Katyayani. After the era of the Ramayana it is said that the three seats of culture in Vedic period - Kosala, Kasi and Videha - merged to form the Vajjians confederacy and the centre of political gravity shifted from Mithila to Vaishali.

3. Which area of India was known as Avantika in ancient times ? 

(A) Avadh 

(B) Ruhelkhand 

(C) Bundelkhand 

(D) Malwa 

Answer: (D) Ujjain (Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River, today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is men tioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha. 

4. The Social System of the Harappans was : 

(A) Fairly egalitarian 

(B) Slave-Labour based 

(C) Colour (Varna) based 

(D) Caste based 

Answer: (A) The archaeological record of the Indus civilization provides practically no evidence of armies, kings, slaves, social conflict, prisons, and other oft-negative traits that we traditionally associated with early civili zations. If there were neither slaves nor kings, a more egalitarian system of governance may have been prac ticed. Besides, compared to other ancient civilizations the houses were of nearly equal size indicating a more egalitarian social structure i.e. The Social System of the Harappans was fairly egalitarian. 

5. Which of the following Vedas pro vides information about the civil isation of the Early Vedic Age?

(A) Rig-veda 

(B) Yajur-veda 

(C) Atharva-veda 

(D) Sama-veda 

Answer: (A) The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rig Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. It is an important source of information on the Vedic religion and their Gods as well as presents a detailed account of the life of the people at that time. 

6. The university which became fa mous in the post-Gupta Era was : 

(A) Kanchi 

(B) Taxila 

(C) Nalanda 

(D) Vallabhi 

Answer: (C) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, which was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century A.D. to 1197 CE. Na landa flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 A.D, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire. 

7. Banabhatta was the court poet of which emperor ? 

(A) Vikramaditya 

(B) Kumaragupta 

(C) Harshavardhana 

(D) Kanishka 

Answer: (C) Banabhatta was a Sanskrit scholar and poet of India. He was the Asthana Kavi in the court of King Harshavardhana, who reigned in the years 606–647 CE in north India. Bana’s principal works include a biography of Harsha, the Harshacharita and one of the world’s earliest novels, Kadambari. The other works attributed to him is the Parvatiparinaya. 

8. The first Indian ruler, who established the supremacy of Indian Navy in the Arabian Sea was : 

(A) Rajaraja I 

(B) Rajendra I 

(C) Rajadhiraja I 

(D) Kulottunga I

Answer: (A) Rajaraja Chola I created a powerful standing army and a considerable navy, which achieved even great er success under his son Rajendra Chola I. One of the last conquests of Rajaraja was the naval conquest of the ‘old islands of the sea numbering 12,000’, the Maldives. Chola Navy also had played a major role in the invasion of Lanka. 

9. Which statement on the Harappan Civilisation is correct? 

(A) Horse sacrifice was known to them. 

(B) Cow was sacred to them. 

(C) ‘Pashupati’ was venerated by them. 

(D) The culture was not generally static. 

Answer: (D) Potteries of the Harappan Civilization bring out the gradual evolutionary trend in the culture. It is on the basis of different types of potteries and ceramic art from found over the different stages of the civiliza tion, it can be said that Harappan culture was not static and did not disappear suddenly. While show ing signs of decay, in course of time it rejuvenated itself by reviving some of the earlier ceramic tradi tions and evolving new ones in the transitional phase. 

10. The First Tirthankara of the Jains was : 

(A) Arishtanemi 

(B) Parshvanath 

(C) Ajitanath 

(D) Rishabha 

Answer: (D) In Jainism, Rishabh was the first of the 24 Tirthankaras who founded the Ikshavaku dynasty and was the first Tirthankara of the present age. Because of this, he was called Adinath. He is mentioned in the Hindu text of the Bhagavata Purana as an avatar of Vishnu. In Jainism, a Tirthankara is a human being who helps in achieving liberation and enlightenment as an “Arihant” by destroying all of their soul con straining (ghati) karmas, became a role-model and leader for those seeking spiritual guidance. 

11. The great silk-route to the In dians was opened by : 

(A) Kanishka 

(B) Ashoka 

(C) Harsha 

(D) Fa-Hien 

Answer: (A) The Silk Road or Silk Route is a modern term re ferring to a historical network of interlinking trade routes across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that con nected East, South, and Western Asia with the Med iterranean and European world, as well as parts of North and East Africa. Extending 6,500 km, the Silk Road gets its name from the lucrative Chinese silk trade along it, which began during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). The Kushan empire incorporated Samarkand, Bokhara and Fergana, bordering on the Silk Road towns of Kashgar, Yarkand and Khotan. The main route from Central Asia into India, connect ing India with the Silk Roads and the Mediterranean, ran through Gandhara. Kanishka sought to promote the thriving trade with the Silk Road centres like Kash gar and beyond, sending an envoy to Ttajan in Rome.

12. The rulers of which dynasty started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks? 

(A) Satavahanas 

(B) Mauryas 

(C) Guptas 

(D) Cholas 

Answer: (A) Land grants formed an important feature of the Satavahana rural administration. Inscriptions show that the Satavahanas started the practice of granting fiscal and administrative immunities to Brahmins and Buddhist monks. Earlier, the grants to individuals were temporary but later grants to religious beneficiaries were permanent. Perhaps the earliest epigraphic grant of land is found in the Nanaghat Cave Inscription of naganika, who bestowed villages (grama) on priests for officiating at Vedic sacrifices, but it does not speak of any concessions in this context. These appear first in grants made by Gautamiputra Satakarni in the first quarter of the second century A.D.

13. The most important text of vedic mathematics is : 

(A) Satapatha Brahman 

(B) Atharva Veda 

(C) Sulva Sutras 

(D) Chhandogya Upanishad 

Answer: (C) The Shulba Sutras are sutra texts belonging to the Strauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire altar construction. They are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. The four major Shulba Sutras, which are math ematically the most significant, are those composed by Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana. 

14. Yavanika or curtain was introduced in Indian theatre by which of the following? 

(A) Shakas 

(B) Parthians 

(C) Greeks 

(D) Kushans

Answer: (C) The most interesting term in Indian drama with Greek connotation is yavanika, which means a stage curtain. For the first time in Panini’s grammar, there is a reference to Yavana and Yavanani writing. However, the theory is not only erroneous but ridiculous because there is no curtain in the Greek drama and also there is no word “yavanika” in Sanskrit language. There is Yavani meaning Greek woman. 

15. Who started the Saka Era which is still used by the Government of India? 

(A) Kanishka 

(B) Vikramaditya 

(C) Samudra Gupta 

(D) Asoka 

Answer: (A) The mightiest of the Kushan rulers in India was Kanishka. He was in power from 78 AD to 120 AD. It was Kanishka who initiated the Saka Era in 78 AD. Through inheritance and conquest, Kanishka’s kingdom covered an area extending from Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan) in the west to Patna in the Ganges Valley in the east, and from the Pamirs (now in Tajikistan) in the north to central India in the south. His capital was Purushpura (Peshawar). 

16. What inspired the paintings of Ajanta ? 

(A) Compassionate Buddha 

(B) Radha-Krishan Leela 

(C) Jain Thirthankaras 

(D) Mahabharata encounters 

Answer: (A) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maha rashtra, India are 30 rock-cut cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to the 600 CE. The caves include paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of Buddhist religious art (which de pict the Jataka tales) as well as frescos which are reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings in Sri Lanka. The Ajanta cave paintings depict the life of Gautam Buddha. 

17. Who among the following was the first to invade India ? 

(A) Xerxes 

(B) Alexander 

(C) Darius-I 

(D) Seleucus 

Answer: (C) In about 518 BCE, the Persians invaded India. They were led by King Darius I, who conquered the Indus Valley and the area that is now the state of Punjab. Darius-I was successful in maintaining pow er, and his descendants continued to rule the area when he died. Darius-I also began to collect a tribute tax, and spread news of India’s many natural resources to Europe. 

18. Which among the following is the oldest dynasty ? 

(A) Maurya 

(B) Gupta 

(C) Kushan 

(D) Kanva 

Answer: (A) The Maurya Empire was a geographically exten sive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 321 to 185 BC. Origi nating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo Gangetic plains (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bengal) in the eastern side of the Indian subcon tinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya. The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approxi mately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indi an Subcontinent. The Kushan Empire was originally formed in the early 1st century AD under Kujula Kad phises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River (Amu Darya), and later based near Kabul, Afghanistan. The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dy nasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister of Devabhuti, the last Sunga king in 75 BCE 

19. With which of the following is the classic “Jivaka Chintamani” in Tamil associated ? 

(A) Jainism 

(B) Buddhism 

(C) Hinduism 

(D) Christianity  

Answer: (A) Jivaka Chintamani (fabulous gem) is a classical epic poem, considered one of the five great Tamil epics according to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Silappadikaram, Valayap athi and Kundalakesi. It was composed during the 10th century CE by Thiruthakka Thevar, a Jain monk. It narrates the romantic exploits of Jeevaka and throws light on arts of music and dance of the era. It is reputed to have been the model for Kamba Ramayanam. The epic is based on Sanskrit original and contains the exposition of Jain doctrines and beliefs.

20. Where did Lord Buddha breathe his last? 

(A) Rajgir 

(B) Bodh Gaya 

(C) Sarnath 

(D) Kushinagar  

Answer: (D) Kushinagar is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kushinagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an important Buddhist pilgrimage site, where Gautama Buddha is thought to have attained Parinirvana after his death. It is one of the most im portant four holy sites for Buddhists. At this loca tion, near the Hiranyavati River, Gautama Buddha attained Parinirvana (or ‘Final Nirvana’) after falling ill from eating a meal of a species of mushroom, or possibly pork. 

21. Who were the first kings to is sue gold coins in India? 

(A) Mauryas 

(B) Indo-Greeks 

(C) Guptas 

(D) Kushans 

Answer: (B) The Indo-Greek kings were the first to issue gold coins in India and their coins were special in the sense that each king had his own distinctive coins by which he could be definitely identified. The names of at least thirty Bactrian kings are known with the help of nu merous coins, and they help in the reconstruction of the history of the kings. The coins carry legends in Greek and also in Kharosthi and Brahmi. 

22. Where is Brihadeshwar Temple situated ? 

(A) Kanchi 

(B) Madurai 

(C) Shri Shailan 

(D) Tanjore 

Answer: (D) The Brihadeshwar Temple at Thanjavur (Tanjore) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shiva and a brilliant example of the ma jor heights achieved by Cholas in Tamil architecture. It is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron Raja Raja Chola I. It remains India’s largest temple and is one of the greatest glories of Indian architecture. The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Great Living Chola Temples”. 

23. In Tamil literature the glorious books ‘Shilppadikaram and Manimekhalai’ are related to 

(A) Jainism 

(B) Buddhism 

(C) Hindusim 

(D) Christianity 

Answer: (B) Shilppadikaram is one of the five Great Epics ac cording to later Tamil literary tradition, the others being Manimegalai, Civaka Cintamani, Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. The poet prince Ilango Adigal is credit ed with this work. He is reputed to be the brother of Senguttuvan from Chera dynasty. Ilango Adigal was a Buddhist monk and Silappadhikaram and Manimekalai are Buddhist epics. Manimekalai, a purely Buddhist work of the 3rd Sangam period in Tamil literature is the most supreme and famous among the Buddhist work done in Tamil. It is a work expounding the doc trines and propagating the values of Buddhism.It also talks about the Tamil Buddhists in the island.

24. Who established Mahabalipuram? 

(A) Pallava 

(B) Pandya 

(C) Chola 

(D) Chalukya 

Answer: (A) Mahabalipuram, derived from ‘Mamallapuram’ is the prior and colloquial name of a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, now officially called Mamallapuram. Mahaba lipuram was a 7th century port city of the South Indi an dynasty of the Pallavas near the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. The name Mamallapuram is believed to have been given after the Pallava king Narasimhavar man I, who took on the epithet Maha-malla (great wrestler), as the favourite sport of the Pallavas was wrestling. It has various historic monuments built largely between the 7th and the 9th centuries, and has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

25. The Saka era commencing from A.D. 78, was founded by 

(A) Kanishka 

(B) Asoka 

(C) Chandragupta 

(D) Vikramaditya 

Answer: (A) The date of Kanishka’s accession is disputed, rang ing from 78 to 248. The generally accepted date of 78 is also the basis for an era presumably started by the Shakas and used in addition to the Gregorian calen dar by the present-day Indian government. 

26. Ganhadra school of art came into existence in 

(A) Hinayana sect 

(B) Mahayana sect 

(C) Vaishnava sect 

(D) Shaiva sect 

Answer: (B) The Gandhara school of art is mainly related to Mahayana Buddhism which encouraged image wor ship. The Kushan kings, particularly Kanishka, en couraged the Gandhara artists. The Gandhara sculp tures have been found in the ruins of Taxila and in various ancient sites in Afghanistan and in West Paki stan. They consist mostly of the images of the Bud dha and relief sculptures presenting scenes from Buddhist texts. A number of Bodhisattva figures were carved out. A figure of Gandhara shows the first ser mon in the deer park and the death of the Buddha. In all these figures there is a realistic treatment of the body although it is draped. In these sculptures there is a tendency to mould the human body in a realistic manner paying great attention to accuracy and phys ical details particularly in the presentation of mus cles, moustaches, etc. Also the representation of the thick bold fold lines forms a distinct characteristic. Thus the Gandhara sculptures offer a striking con trast to what has been discovered elsewhere in India. 

27. Out of the following remains ex cavated in Indus Valley, which one indicates the commercial and economic development ? 

(A) The Pottery 

(B) Seals 

(C) The boats 

(D) The houses 

Answer: (B) The seals of the Indus Valley Civilization have been one of the major sources for information about the period. Apart from giving plethora of informations about the social and religious life of the period, they give insight into the economic activities. The economy of the Indus civilization was based on a highly orga nized agriculture, supplemented by an active commerce, probably connected to that of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia. Trade amongst the civilizations is sug gested by the finding of hundreds of small seals, sup posedly produced by the Indus peoples, at the excava tion sites of ancient Mesopotamian cities that were existent around the same time. Some of the seals men tion the rulers of different countries. 

28. Who, according to the Buddhists, is believed to be the next incar nation of Gautam Buddha ? 

(A) Atreya 

(B) Maitreya 

(C) Nagarjuna 

(D) Kalki 

Answer: (B) Maitreya is foretold as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. In some Buddhist lit erature, such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra, he or she is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva. Maitreya is a bodhisattva who in the Buddhist tradi tion is to appear on Earth, achieve complete enlight enment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor of the histor ic Sakyamuni Buddha. 

29. Who among the following were contemporaries of Kanishka ? 

(A) Kamban, Banabhatta, Asva gosha 

(B) Nagarjuna, Asvagosha, Va sumitra 

(C) Asvagosha, Kalidasa, Bana bhatta 

(D) Kalidasa, Kamban, Va-sumitra 

Answer: (B) The eminent Buddhist writers Nagarjuna, Asvag hosha, Parsva and Vasumitra flourished at the court of Kanishka. Nagarjuna was the great exponent of Mahayana doctrine and Asvaghosha, a multifaceted personality, was known as a poet, musician, scholar and zealous Buddhist monk. Charaka, the most cele brated authority on Ayurveda was the court physi cian of Kanishka and Mathara, a politician of rare merit, was his minister. Vasumitra presided over the fourth Buddhist Council. 

30. Which rulers built the Ellora tem ples? 

(A) Chalukya 

(B) Sunga 

(C) Rashtrakuta 

(D) Pallava 

Answer: (C) These religious establishments could have received royal patronage from various dynasties, even though inscriptional evidences are lacking for most of them. The only definite inscriptional evidence is that of Rash trakuta Dantidurga (c. 753-57 A.D.) The majority of the Brahmanical establishments and the remaining Buddhist ones can be attributed to the Rashtrakuta times which indicate the religious tolerance of the contemporary period. The Jaina caves definitely post date the Rashtrakutas as indicated by the style of execution and fragmentary inscriptions. This region was under the control of Kalyani Chalukyas and Yada vas of Deogiri (Daulatabad) during this period. 

31. Who amongst the following also had the name ‘Devanama Piya dassi’? 

(A) Mauryan King Ashoka 

(B) Mauryan King Chandra-gup ta Maurya 

(C) Gautam Buddha 

(D) Bhagwan Mahavira 

Answer: (A) The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 in scriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boul ders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 269 BCE to 231 BCE. These inscriptions are dispersed through out the areas of modern-day Bangladesh, India, Ne pal and Pakistan and represent the first tangible evi dence of Buddhism. In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as “Beloved of the Gods” and “King Priya-darshi.” The identification of King Priya-darshi with Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discov ered in 1915 by C. Beadon at Maski, the village in Raichur district of Karnataka. Another minor rock edict is found at the village Gujarra in Datia district of Madhya Pradesh. This also shows the Name “Asoka” in addition to usual “Devanam Piyadasi”. 


32. The subject-matter of Ajanta Paintings pertains to 

(A) Jainism 

(B) Buddhism 

(C) Vaishnavism 

(D) Shaivism 

Answer: (B) The Ajanta Caves are the treasure house of deli cate paintings that portray scenes from Jataka tales and from the life of Lord Buddha. Celebrated for its archaic wonder and laced with the series of carved artistry, Ajanta Cave paintings echo the quality of In dian creativity in perhaps the subtlest way. In the Ajanta wall-paintings, there is a profound modifica tion from the art of early Buddhism. The Ajanta paint ings stresses on religious romanticism with lyric quality, a reflection of the view that every aspect of life has an equal value in the spiritual sense and as an aspect of the divine. 

33. Which of the following Crafts manship was not practised by the Aryans ? 

(A) Pottery 

(B) Jewellery 

(C) Carpentry 

(D) Blacksmith 

Answer: (D) Iron was a metal unknown to the Aryans during the early Vedic age. The advent of iron is generally associated with the late or post-Vedic ages. So black smith did not exist during this period. 

34. Mohammed-bin-Qasim con quered Sind in the year 

(A) 712 A.D. 

(B) 812 A.D. 

(C) 912 A.D. 

(D) 1012 A.D. 

Answer: (A) The Arab conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 AD gave the Muslims a firm foothold on the sub-continent. Qasim’s conquest of Sindh and Punjab laid the foundations of Islamic rule in the In dian subcontinent. The description of Hiuen Tsang, a Chinese historian, leaves no doubt that the social and economic restrictions inherent in the caste differenti ations of Hindu society had however, gradually sapped the inner vitality of the social system and Sindh fell without much resistance before the Muslim armies. 

35. The words “Satyameva Jayate” in the State Emblem of India were taken from 

(A) Upanishads 

(B) Sama Veda 

(C) Rig Veda 

(D) Ramayana 

Answer: (A) “Satyameva Jayate” (Truth Alone Triumphs) is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad. Upon independence of India, it was adopt ed as the national motto of India. It is inscribed in Devanagari script at the base of the national emblem. The emblem and words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ are in scribed on one side of all Indian currency. The em blem is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Asoka which was erected around 250 BC at Sarnath, near Varanasi in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. 

36. The earliest city discovered in India was 

(A) Harappa 

(B) Punjab 

(C) Mohenjo Daro 

(D) Sindh 

Answer: (A) The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Jour neys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending “thir teen cosses” (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century. In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identifica tion as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Mar shall. 

37. The famous rock-cut temple of Kailasa is at 

(A) Ajanta 

(B) Badami 

(C) Mahabalipuram 

(D) Ellora 

Answer: (D) Kailashnath Temple is a famous temple, one of the 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, that were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff in the complex located at Ellora, Ma harashtra, India. Of these 34 monasteries and tem ples, the Kailasa (cave 16) is a remarkable example of Dravidian architecture on account of its striking pro portion; elaborate workmanship architectural content and sculptural ornamentation of rock-cut architecture. It is designed to recall Mount Kailash, the abode of Lord Shiva. It is a megalith carved out of one single rock. It was built in the 8th century by the Rashtra kuta king Krishna I. 

38. Epigraphy means 

(A) The study of coins 

(B) The study of inscriptions 

(C) The study of epics 

(D) The study of geography 

Answer: (B) Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions on rocks, pillars, temple walls, copper plates and other writing material. It is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses ac cording to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers. It serves as primary documentary evidence to establish legal, socio-cultural, literary, archaeological, and historical antiquity on the basis of engravings. 

39. Which among the following has not been found in the excavation of Harappan sites ? 

(A) Drains and well 

(B) Fort 

(C) Reservoirs 

(D) Temple with Shikhar 

Answer: (D) Sikhara, a Sanskrit word translating literally to “mountain peak”, refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India. Sikhara over the sanctum sanctorum where the presiding deity is en shrined is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India. Sikhara was a major feature of the medieval times. 

40. Which among the following ‘MATH’ is related with Bud dhism? 

(A) Dakhma 

(B) Chaitya 

(C) Khangah 

(D) Angeri 

Answer: (B) A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa. In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa. Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devo tees and to provide shelter for them. 

41. Where has the world’s largest monolithic statue of Buddha been installed ? 

(A) Bamiyan 

(B) Hyderabad 

(C) Kandy 

(D) Lhasa 

Answer: (A) The Buddhas of Bamiyan were two 6th century monumental statues of standing buddha carved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyan valley in the Hazara jat region of central Afghanistan. They were dynamit ed and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar, after the Taliban government declared that they were idols. On 8 September 2008 archeologists searching for a 

legendary 300-metre statue at the site of the already dynamited Buddhas announced the discovery of an unknown 19-metre (62-foot) reclining Buddha, a pose representing Buddha’s passage into nirvana 

42. The Harappan Civilisation was discovered in the year : 

(A) 1935 

(B) 1942 

(C) 1901 

(D) 1922 

Answer: (D) In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the dis covery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Mar shall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall. 

43. The title ‘Indian Napolean’ has been attached to 

(A) Chandra Gupta Maurya 

(B) Samudragupta 

(C) Chandragupta-I 

(D) Harshavardhana 

Answer: (B) Samudragupta (335-375 AD) of the Gupta dynasty is known as the Napoleon of India. Historian A V Smith called him so because of his great military conquests known from the ‘Prayag Prashati’ written by his court ier and poet Harisena, who also describes him as the hero of a hundred battles. But some leading Indian historians criticise Smith and feel that Samudragupta was a far greater warrior than Napoleon, as the former never lost any battle. 

44. The ‘Ajivikas’ were a 

(A) sect contemporary to the Buddha 

(B) breakaway branch of the Buddhists 

(C) sect founded by Charvaka 

(D) sect founded by Shankara charya 

Answer: (A) Ajivika (“living” in Sanskrit) was a system of an cient Indian philosophy and an ascetic movement of the Mahajanapada period in the Indian subcontinent. Ajivika was primarily a heterodox Hindu (Nastika) or atheistic system. The Ajivikas may simply have been a more loosely-organized group of wandering ascetics (shramanas or sannyasins). One of their prominent leaders was Makkhali Gosal. Ajivikas are is thought to be contemporaneous to other early Hindu nastika philosophical schools of thought, such as Charvaka, Jainism and Buddhism, and may have preceded the latter two systems. 

45. The organic relationship between the ancient culture of the indus Valley and Hinduism of today is proved by the worship of 

(A) Pashupati, Indra and the Mother Goddess 

(B) Stones, trees and animals 

(C) Vishnu and Lakshmi 

(D) Siva and Sakti 

Answer: (B) There has been evidence that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization believed in some form of an imal and nature worship. The figure of deities on the seals indicates that they worshipped gods and god desses in the human form. No major sculpture sur vives but for a bust thought to be of a major priest and the stunning bronze dancing girl. The Divine Mother appears to have been an important goddess, due to the countless terra-cotta statues of her that were found. It follows a school of thought that would become prevalent later as well, of the female energy being regarded as the source of all creation. What is most interesting is the existence of a male god which has been identified as a proto-type of an important God of the religion of Hinduism, lord Shiv. The fact that the same God is still worshipped today, and has been for the last five thousand years is one of the remarkable features of Indian culture. Even evidence of the Bhakti cult (loving devotion to a personal God) has been found at Indus Valley Civilization sites, and the Bhakti cult also has a large following even today. It can therefore be concluded that there is a close relationship between the beliefs of the Indus Valley Civilization and that of modern Hinduism. 

46. How was Burma (now Myanmar) known to ancient Indians ? 

(A) Malayamandalam 

(B) Yavadwipa 

(C) Suvarnabhumi 

(D) Suvarnadwipa 

Answer: (C) Suvarnabhumi is a Sanskrit term meaning the “Gold en Land” or “Land of Gold”, coined by the ancient Indians which refers broadly to Southeast Asian re gion across Gulf of Bengal and Eastern Indian Ocean; Lower Burma, Lower Thailand, Lower Malay Penin sula, and Sumatra. Although it seems to cover vast region in Southeast Asia, it is generally accepted that the name Suvarnabhumi was first used to refer more specifically to Lower Burma. Another term which was used by the ancient Indians is Suvarnadvipa which means the “Golden Peninsula/Island”. Suvarnabhu mi may have been used primarily as a vague general designation of an extensive region in Southeast Asia, but, over time, different parts of it came to be desig nated by the additional epithets of island, peninsula or city. 

47. With whom is ‘Junagarh Rock Inscription’ associated ? 

(A) Rudradaman 

(B) Bimbisara 

(C) Chandragupta II 

(D) Gautamiputra Satakarni 

Answer: (A) The Junagadh rock inscription, found in Junagadh, was carved under the orders of King Rudradaman, who had obtained the title of Mahakshatrapa. He was the grandson of the famous Mahakshatrapa Chastana and was a Saka ruler from the Western Kshatrapa dynasty. The inscription is a chronicle about the re building of a dam named Urjayat around the lake Sudarshana. The dam lay in the region of Saurashtra and the closest town appears to have been a place called Girinagar. It was fed by the rivers Suvarnasikata and Palasini, along with other smaller streams. The dam was originally built by Vaishya Pushyagupta who was the governor of the region under Chandragupta Maurya. Conduits from the dam were later built un der orders of his grandson; Emperor Asoka. 

48. Nalanda University was a great centre of learning, especially in 

(A) Buddhism 

(B) Jainism 

(C) Vaishnavism 

(D) Tantra 

Answer: (A) Nalanda was an ancient centre of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist centre of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalan da flourished between the reign of the Sakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta-I or Kumara Gupta-II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire.

49. The Rathas of Mahabalipuram was built during the reign of the 

(A) Palas 

(B) Cholas 

(C) Rashtrakutas 

(D) Pallavas 

Answer: (D) The city of Mahabalipuram was largely developed by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I in the 7th century AD. The mandapa or pavilions and the rathas or shrines shaped as temple chariots are hewn from the granite rock face, while the famed Shore Temple, erected half a century later, is built from dressed stone. The Pancha Rathas shrines were carved dur ing the reign of King Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I. The purpose of their construc tion is not known, structures are not completed. 

50. Who is hailed as the “God of Medicine” by the practitioners of Ayurveda ? 

(A) Susruta 

(B) Chyavana 

(C) Dhanwantari

(D) Charaka 

Answer: (C) Dhanvantri is an Avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. He appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods (devas), and the god of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hindu ism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantri seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or oth ers. Dhanvantri is depicted as Vishnu with four hands, holding medical herbs in one hand and a pot containing rejuvenating nectar called amrita in anoth er. The Puranas state that Dhanvantri emerged from the ‘Ocean of Milk’ and appeared with the pot of nec tar during the story of the Samudra or Sagar man than whilst the ocean was being churned by the de vas and asuras, using the Mandara mountain and the serpent Vasuki. 

51. Which was the only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard? 

(A) Lothal 

(B) Kalibangan 

(C) Harappa 

(D) Mohenjo Daro 

Answer: (A) Lothal was one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Located in Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and dating from 2400 BCE, it was discovered in 1954. Lothal was excavated from February 13, 1955 to May 19, 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Lothal’s dock—the world’s earliest known, connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea.It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. 

52. Which dynasty succeeded the Chalukyas in the Western India? 

(A) Cholas 

(B) Kakatiyas 

(C) Pallavas 

(D) Rashtrakutas 

Answer: (D) The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynas ty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. The earliest dynasty, known as the “Badami Chalukyas”, ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesin II. After the death of Pulakesin II, the Eastern Chalukyas became an inde pendent kingdom in the eastern Deccan. They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century. In the west ern Deccan, the rise of the Rashtrakutas in the mid dle of the 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of Bad ami before being revived by their descendants, the Western Chalukyas, in the late 10th century. 

53. Upto where did Chandragupta Maurya’s empire extend in the north-west ? 

(A) Ravi river 

(B) Indus river 

(C) Satluj river 

(D) Hindukush range 

Answer: (B) Prior to Chandragupta’s consolidation of power, small regional kingdoms dominated the northwestern subcontinent, while the Nanda Dynasty dominated the middle and lower basin of the Ganges. After Chan dragupta’s conquests, the Maurya Empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, some part of the eastern and south east Iran in the west, to Kashmir and Nepal in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south. The vast empire extended from the Bay of Bengal in the east, to the Indus River in the west. 

54. Prince Ellara conquered Sri Lan ka in the second century BC. With which of the following dy nasties of Dravida ruler was he associated ? 

(A) Chera 

(B) Chola 

(C) Pandya 

(D) Pallava 

Answer: (B) Elara (235 BC – 161 BC), also known as Manu Needhi Cholan was a Chola king from the Chola King dom, in present day South India, who ruled Sri Lanka from 205 BC to 161 BC from the ancient capital of Anuradhapura. Often referred to as ‘the Just King’. The Tamil name Elalan means, ‘the one who rules the Ellai (boundary). Elara is a peculiar figure in the histo ry of Sri Lanka and one with particular resonance giv en the ongoing ethnic strife in the country. Although he was an invader, he is often regarded as one of Sri Lanka’s wisest and most just monarchs, as highlight ed in the ancient Sinhalese chronicle Mahavamsa. 

55. Harshavardhana organised his religious assembly at 

(A) Mathura 

(B) Prayag 

(C) Varanasi 

(D) Tamralipt 

Answer: (B) After the Kannauj Assembly was concluded, Hi uen-Tsang was making preparations to go to his home, but Harsha invited him to attend another Assembly at Prayag which he used to hold after ever five years on the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. Five such as semblies had already taken place and this was the sixth Assembly in which Hiuen-Tsang was invited. This ceremony was attended by the kings of eighteen kingdoms and about 5, 00,000 people including Sra manas. Hercetics, Nigranthas, the poor, the orphans etc, attended this assembly. The Prayag Assembly is a glorious example of the generosity of Harshavard hana as he gave all his personal wealth and belong ings in charity during the assembly.

56. Which of the following domes ticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilisa tion ? 

(A) Buffalo 

(B) Sheep 

(C) Cow 

(D) Pig 

Answer: (C) The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. Ranging in size from slightly larger than a human thumb to almost 30 cm. (one foot) in height, the anthropomorphic and animal terracotta figurines from Harappa and other Indus Civilization sites offer a rich reflection of some of the Harappan ideas about representing life in the Bronze Age. From the terracotta figurines, we come to know that the people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was consid ered a great asset in the farming community.

57. Which among the following is the sacred book of the Buddhists ? 

(A) Upanishad 

(B) Vedas 

(C) Tripitaka 

(D) Jatakas 

Answer: (C) Tripitaka is a traditional term used by various Buddhist sects to describe their various canons of scriptures. As the name suggests, a Tripitaka tradi tionally contains three “baskets” of teachings: a Sutra Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Sutta Pitaka), a Vinaya Pitaka (Sanskrit & Pali) and an Abhidharma Pitaka (Sanskrit; Pali: Abhidhamma Pitaka). 

58. The greatest development in the Kushana period was in the field of 

(A) religion 

(B) art 

(C) literature 

(D) architecture

Answer: (B) The Kushanas were great patrons of art. It was under the rule of the Kushans that principles were formed for making sculptural images, which contin ued to influence making of sculptures ever after. During this time, Buddha was first shown in human form (earlier he was represented by symbols like lo tus and footsteps). Other Hindu and Jain deities also began to be shown in human form. Mathura and Gandhara were the two main centers of art during the time of the Kushanas. The Gandhara School of Art and the Mathura School of Art developed their own distinct styles. The Gandhara School was highly influenced by Greco-Roman philosophies and mainly concentrated on depicting the image of the Buddha and the legends associated with his life, while the Mathura School drew inspiration from local folk dei ties and themes from day to day life. 

59. Who was the first known Gupta ruler ? 

(A) Sri Gupta 

(B) Chandragupta I 

(C) Ghatotkacha 

(D) Kumaragupta I 


Answer: (A) Sri Gupta (240–280) was a pre-imperial Gupta king in northern India and start of the Gupta dynasty. The first evidence of Sri Gupta comes from the writings of I-tsing around 690 CE who describes that the Poona copper inscription of Prabhavati Gupta, a daughter of Chandra Gupta, describes “Maharaja Sri-Gupta” as the founder of the Gupta dynasty 

60. Which was the only Indus city without a citadel ? 

(A) Kalibangan 

(B) Harappa 

(C) Mohenjodaro 

(D) Chanhudaro 

Answer: (D) Excavations at Chanhudaro have revealed three different cultural layers from lowest to the top being Indus culture, the Jhukar culture and the Jhangar culture. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories. These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. It was the only Harappan city without a citadel. 

61. Ashoka called the Third Buddhist Council at 

(A) Pataliputra 

(B) Magadha 

(C) Kalinga 

(D) Sarnath 

Answer: (A) The Third Buddhist council was convened in about 250 BCE at Asokarama in Pataliputra, supposedly under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. The tradi tional reason for convening the Third Buddhist Coun cil is reported to have been to rid the Sangha of cor ruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in the Council. 

62. The tutor of Alexander, the Great was 

(A) Darius 

(B) Cyrus 

(C) Socrates 

(D) Aristotle 

Answer: (D) Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato’s teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle’s writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of West ern philosophy, encompassing morality, aesthetics, logic, science, politics, and metaphysics. Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassand er. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest. 

63. Which of the following literary works belongs to classical San skrit literature? 

(A) Dhammapada 

(B) Vedas 

(C) Meghadutam 

(D) Dighanikaya 

Answer: (C) Meghadutam (cloud messenger) is a lyric poem written by Kalidasa, considered to be one of the great est Sanskrit poets. In Sanskrit literature, the poetic conceit used in the Meghadutam spawned the genre of sandesha kavya or messenger poems, most of which are modeled on the Meghaduta (and are often written in the Meghaduta’s mandakranta metre) 


64. Who propounded the ‘Eight-Fold Path’ for the end of misery of mankind ? 

(A) Mahavir 

(B) Gautam Buddha 

(C) Adi Shankaracharya 

(D) Kabir 

Answer: (B) The Noble Eightfold Path is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering (dukkha) and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena (or reality) and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion. The Noble Eightfold Path is the fourth of the Buddha’s Four No ble Truths; the first element of the Noble Eightfold Path is, in turn, an understanding of the Four Noble Truths. It is also known as the Middle Path or Middle Way.

65. The number system ‘Zero’ was invented by 

(A) Ramanujam 

(B) Aryabhatta 

(C) Patanjali 

(D) An unknown person 

Answer: (B) The concept of zero as a number and not merely a symbol for separation is attributed to India, where, by the 9th century AD, practical calculations were carried out using zero, which was treated like any other number, even in case of division. The credit for inventing ‘zero (0)’ goes to Indian mathematicians and the number zero first appears in a book about ‘arith metic’ written by an Indian mathematician ‘Braha magupta’. Zero signifies ‘nothing’ and the current def inition calls it an ‘additive identity’. The Indian math ematicians Bhaskara, Mahavira and Brahamagupta worked on this new number and they tried to explain its properties. It wasn’t that somebody suddenly came up with the idea of the zero and the mathematicians throughout the world accepted it. Around 500 AD, Aryabhatta, an Indian mathematician, devised a num bers system and the symbol he used for the number zero was also the number used to represent an un known element (x). 

66. ‘Charak’ was the famous court physician of 

(A) Harsha 

(B) Chandra Gupta Maurya 

(C) Ashoka 

(D) Kanishka 

Answer: (D) Charaka was one of the principal contributors to the ancient art and science of Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India. He is referred to as the Father of Medicine. The life and times of Charaka are not known with certainty. Some Indian scholars have stated that Charaka of Charaka Samhita existed before Panini, the grammarian, who is said to have lived before the sixth century B. C. Another school argues that Patanjali wrote a commen tary on the medical work of Charaka. They say that if Patanjali lived around 175 B.C., Charaka must have lived some time before him. Another source about the identity of Charaka and his times is provided by the French orientalist Sylvan Levi. He discovered in the Chinese translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, a per-son named Charaka who was a court physician to the Indo-Scythian king Kanishka, who in all probability reigned in the second century A.D. From the above discussion, it would seem that Charaka may have lived between the second century B.C. to the second cen tury A.D. 

67. Buddhism made an important impact by allowing two sections of society into its fold. They were 

(A) Merchants and Priests 

(B) Moneylenders and Slaves 

(C) Warriors and Traders 

(D) Women and Sudras 

Answer: (D) Buddha was against caste. His religion was open to all, to shudras, women and even repentant crimi nals. The Buddhist scriptures were available to all men and women. Buddhism encouraged abolition of distinctions in society and strengthened the principle of social equality. 

68. The language used to write source materials in ancient time was 

(A) Sanskrit 

(B) Pali 

(C) Brahmi 

(D) Kharosthi 

Answer: (B) Pali is a Middle Indo-Aryan language (of Prakrit group) of the Indian subcontinent. It is best known as the language of many of the earliest extant Bud dhist scriptures, as collected in the Pali Canon or Tipitaka, and as the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism. T. W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originat ed as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and em ployed by him. 

69. India’s trade with the Roman Empire came to an end with the invasion of Rome by the 

(A) Arabs 

(B) Hungarians 

(C) Hunas 

(D) Turks 

Answer: (C) Roman trade with India started around the begin ning of the Common Era following the reign of Augus tus and his conquest of Egypt. Following the Roman Persian Wars Khosrow I of the Persian Sassanian Dynasty captured the areas under the Roman Byzan tine Empire. The Arabs, led by ‘Amr ibn al-’As, crossed into Egypt in late 639 or early 640 C.E. That advance marked the beginning of the Islamic conquest of Egypt and the fall of ports such as Alexandria, used to se cure trade with India by the Greco Roman world since the Ptolemaic dynasty. The decline in trade saw South ern India turn to Southeast Asia for international trade, where it influenced the native culture to a greater degree than the impressions made on Rome. The Hunas invaded the Roman Empire under Attila the Hun in 454 C.E. 

70. Most of the chola temples were dedicated to 

(A) Ganesh 

(B) Shiva 

(C) Durga 

(D) Vishnu 

Answer: (B) Most of the Chola temples were dedicated to Shiva. The great living Chola temples are important Hindu kovils that were built during the 10th-12th centuries in the South India. In all these temples, the chief deity who has been depicted and worshipped is Lord Shiva. 

71. ‘Bull’ in Buddhism is associated with which event of Buddha’s life ? 

(A) Birth 

(B) Great departure 

(C) Enlightenment 

(D) Mahaparinirvan 

Answer: (A) The five great events in Buddha’s life are repre sented by symbols as under: (a) Birth by Lotus and Bull, (b) Great Renunciation by Horse, (c) Nirvana by Bodhi Tree, (d) First Sermon by Dharmachakra or Wheel and (e) Parinirvana or death by the stupa. 

72. Which of the following would be the most accurate description of the Mauryan Monarchy under Ashoka ? 

(A) Enlightened despotism 

(B) Centralised autocracy 

(C) Oriental despotism 

(D) Guided democracy 

Answer: (A) Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. However, in enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism), absolute monarchs used their authority to institute a number of reforms in the political sys tems and societies of their countries. During Asho ka’s reign, the Mauryan Empire was indeed the first attempt in India to secure administrative centraliza tion on an extended scale. Within its framework it united a number of people and tribes. Tha nature of the Mauryan government was enlightened despotism. The centralized monarchy became a paternal despo tism under the able guidance of Ashoka. 

73. The illustrious names of Aryab hatta and Varahamihir are asso ciated with the age of the 

(A) Guptas 

(B) Kushanas 

(C) Mauryas 

(D) Palas 

Answer: (A) The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhatta, who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero, postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun, and studied solar and lunar eclipses. The most famous works of Aryabhatta are the Aryabhatiya and the Arya-siddhanta. Varahami hira was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain. He is considered to be one of the nine jewels (Navaratnas) of the court of legendary ruler Vikramaditya (thought to be the Gup ta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya). 

74. Lothal is a site where dockyards of which of the following civiliza tion were found ? 

(A) Indus Valley 

(B) Mesoptamian 

(C) Egyptian 

(D) Persian 

Answer: (A) Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Lothal’s dock—the world’s earliest known, connected the city to an an cient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea. It was a vital and thriving trade centre in ancient times, with its trade of beads, gems and valuable ornaments reaching the far corners of West Asia and Africa. 

75. ‘Buddha’ means 

(A) The Enlightened one 

(B) The Religious Preacher 

(C) The Genius 

(D) The Powerful 

Answer: (A) The word Buddha is a title for the first awakened being in an era. “Buddha” is also sometimes translat ed as “The Enlightened One”. As Gautam fully com prehended the Four Noble Truths and as he arose from the slumbers of ignorance he is called a Bud dha. Before His Enlightenment he was a bodhisattva which means one who is aspiring to attain Buddha hood. He was not born a Buddha, but became a Bud dha by his own efforts. Every aspirant to Buddha hood passes through the bodhisattva period — a pe riod comprising many lives over a vast period of time. 

76. Where do you find the temple of Angkor Wat ? 

(A) In Thailand 

(B)In Malaysia 

(C) In Cambodia 

(D)In Myanmar 

Answer: (C) The temple of Angor Vat is located in Angkor, Siem Reap Province, in Cambodia. It is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. The temple was built by King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Ya sodharapura, the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaivism tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-pre served temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foun dation – first Hindu, dedicated to the god Vishnu, then Buddhist. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country’s prime attraction for visitors. 

77. Whose achievements are record ed in the Allahabad Pillar inscrip tion ? 

(A) Chandra Gupta Maurya 

(B) Samudra Gupta 

(C) Vikramaditya 

(D) Skand Gupta 

Answer: (B) Allahabad Stone Pillar Inscription of Samudra Gupta is writings in stone pillar during the term of King Sam udra Gupta located in Allahabad which mentioned events during his tenure in and around his empire. It is one of the most important epigraphic evidences of the Imperial Guptas. Composed by Harisena, it delin eates the reign of the Guptas in ancient India. Achieve ments of different rulers of the Gupta lineage are also mentioned in the Allahabad Pillar Inscription. Harise na was the court poet and minister of Samudragupta. 

78. The essential feature of the In dus Valley Civilisation was 

(A) worship of forces of nature 

(B) organised city life 

(C) pastoral farming 

(D) caste society 

Answer: (B) Among all the Bronze Age cultures, the Indus Val ley civilization was the most urbanized. A sophisticat ed and technologically advanced urban culture is ev ident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centres in the region. The quality of mu nicipal town planning suggests the knowledge of ur ban planning and efficient municipal governments. By 2600 BCE, the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centres. Such urban centres include Harappa, Ganeriwala, Mohenjo-Daro in modern day Pakistan, and Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Rupar, and Lothal in modern day India. 

79. Name the capital of the Pallavas 

(A) Kanchi 

(B) Vatapi 

(C) Trichnapalli 

(D) Mahabalipuram 

Answer: (A) Pallavas ruled regions of northern Tamil Nadu and southern Andhra Pradesh between the second to the ninth century CE. Kanchipuram served as the capital city of the Pallava Kingdom from the 4th to the 9th century. It is also known by its former names Kan chiampathi, Conjeevaram, and the nickname “The City of Thousand Temples’. Kanchipuram was mentioned in the Mahabhasya, written by Patanjali in the 2nd century BC. 

80. The word ‘Veda’ means 

(A) knowledge 

(B) wisdom 

(C) skill 

(D) power 

Answer: (A) The Vedas (“knowledge”) are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. The Vedas are apauruveya (“not of human agency”). They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called sruti (“what is heard”), distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smriti (“what is remembered”). 

81. Which metal was first used by the Vedic people ? 

(A) Silver

(B) Gold 

(C) Iron 

(D) Copper 

Answer: (D) The Rig Veda mentions such artisans as the car penter, the chariot-maker, the weaver, the leather worker, the potter, etc. This indicates that they prac ticed all these crafts. The term, ayas used for copper or bronze shows that metal working was known. Gold was known as ‘hiranya’. 

82. Arabs were defeated in 738 A.D. by 

(A) Pratiharas 

(B) Rashtrakutas 

(C) Palas 

(D) Chalukyas

Answer: (D) The Battle of Rajasthan is a battle (or series of battles) where the Hindu alliance defeated the Arab invaders in 738 CE and removed the Arab invaders and pillagers from the area east of the Indus River and protected whole India. The main Indian kings who contributed to the victory over the Arabs were the north Indian ruler Nagabhata of the Pratihara Dynasty and the south Indian Emperor Vikramaditya- II of the Chalukya dynasty in the 8th century. 

83. In Mauryan dynasty Kalinga war took place in the year— 

(A) 260 BC 

(B) 261 BC 

(C) 126 BC 

(D) 232 BC 

Answer: (B) In the Mauryan dynasty, Kalinga war took place in the year 261 BC. The Kalinga war fought between the Mourya Empire under Ashoka the Great and the state of Kalinga (Odisha). It was fought in 262-261 BC. The Kalinga war is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India. 

84. The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are 

(A) Hindu and Buddhist 

(B) Buddhist and Jain 

(C) Hindu and Jain 

(D) Hindu, Buddhist and Jain

Answer: (D) Ellora represents the epitome of Indian rock-cut architecture. The 34 “caves” – actually structures excavated out of the vertical face of the Charanandri hills. Buddhist, Hindu and Jain rock-cut temples and viharas and mathas were built between the 5th cen tury and 10th century. The 12 Buddhist (caves 1– 12), 17 Hindu (caves 13–29) and 5 Jain (caves 30– 34) caves, built in proximity, demonstrate the reli gious harmony prevalent during this period of Indian history.

85. The Seven Pagodas of Mahaba lipuram are a witness to the art patronised by the 

(A) Pallavas 

(B) Pandyas 

(C) Cholas 

(D) Cheras 

Answer: (A) “Seven Pagodas” has served as a nickname for the south Indian city of Mahabalipuram, also called Ma mallapuram, since the first European explorers reached it. The phrase “Seven Pagodas” refers to a myth that has circulated in India, Europe, and other 

parts of the world for over eleven centuries. Mahaba lipuram’s Shore Temple, built in the 8th century CE under the reign of Pallava king Narasimhavarman II, stands at the shore of the Bay of Bengal. Legend has it that six other temples once stood with it. 

86. Name the clan Buddha belonged to 

(A) Gnathrika 

(B) Maurya 

(C) Sakya 

(D) Kuru 

Answer: (C) Shakya was an ancient tribe (janapada) of the Indi an Subcontinent in the 1st millennium BCE. In Bud dhist texts the Shakyas, the inhabitants of Shakya janapada, are mentioned as a Kshatriya clan of Gota ma gotra. The most famous Shakya was Gautama Buddha, a member of the ruling Gautama clan of Lumbini, who is also known as Shakyamuni Buddha, “sage of the Shakyas”, due to his association with this ancient kingdom. The Puranas mention Shakya as a king of Ikshvaku dynasty 

87. Who was the author of the Kad ambari, a great romantic play ? 

(A) Banabhatta 

(B) Harshavardhana 

(C) Baskaravardhana 

(D) Bindusara 

Answer: (A) Kadambari is a romantic novel in Sanskrit. It was substantially composed by Banabhatta in the first half of the 7th century, who did not survive to see it through completion. The novel was completed by Ba nabhatta’s son Bhushanabhatta, according to the plan laid out by his late father. It is conventionally divided into Purvabhaga (earlier part) written by Banabhatta, and Uttarabhaga (latter part) by Bhushanabhatta. 

88. During which Gupta King’s reign did the Chinese traveller Fa-hien visit India ? 

(A) Chandra Gupta I 

(B) Samudra Gupta 

(C) Chandra Gupta II 

(D) Kumara Gupta 

Answer: (C) Chandragupta II The Great (was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c. 380–413/415 CE, during which the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith, art, ar chitecture, and sculpture flourished, and the cultural development of ancient India reached its climax. Fa Hsien was the first of three great Chinese pilgrims who visited India from the fifth to the seventh centu ries CE, in search of knowledge, manuscripts and relics. Faxian arrived during the reign of Chandra gupta II and gave a general description of North India at that time. Among the other things, he reported about the absence of capital punishment, the lack of a poll tax and land tax. Most citizens did not consume on ions, garlic, meat, and wine. 

89. St. Thomas is said to have come to India to propagate Christianity during the reign of the 

(A) Cheras 

(B) Parthians 

(C) Pandyas 

(D) Cholas 

Answer: (B) St. Thomas is traditionally believed to have sailed to India in 52AD to spread the Christian faith among the Jews, the Jewish diaspora present in Kerala at the time. He is supposed to have landed at the an cient port of Muziris near Kodungalloor. He then went to Palayoor (near present-day Guruvayoor), which was a Hindu priestly community at that time. He left Pa layoor in AD 52 for the southern part of what is now Kerala State, where he established the Ezharappall ikal, or “Seven and Half Churches”. Thomas landed in Cranganoor (Kodungallur, Muziris) and took part in the wedding of Cheraman Perumal and proceeded to the courts of Gondophorus in North India. Gunda phorus was indeed a historical figure and he belonged to the Parthian Dynasty from Takshasila (Taxila). 

90. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization usually built their houses of 

(A) Pucca bricks 

(B) Stone 

(C) Wood 

(D) All of the above 

Answer: (A) The Indus Valley Civilization, marked by its re markable level of urbanization despite being a Bronze Age culture, is noted for its cities built of brick, road side drainage system, and multistoried houses. Houses were one or two stories high, made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical. Each was built around a courtyard, with windows over looking the courtyard. The outside walls had no win dows. Each home had its own private drinking well and its own private bathroom.

91. Who started the Saka Era and when ? 

(A) Kadphises in 58 BC 

(B) Rudradaman I in AD 78 

(C) Vikramaditya in 58 BC 

(D) Kanishka in AD 78 

Answer: (D) Most of what is known about Kanishka derives from Chinese sources, particularly Buddhist writings. When Kanishka came to the throne is uncertain. His accession has been estimated as occurring between his reign is believed to have lasted 23 years. The year 78 marks the beginning of the Saka era, a system of dating that Kanishka might have initiated. 

92. In which state was the Nalanda University located in India? 

(A) Bengal 

(B) Bihar 

(C) Orissa 

(D) Uttar Pradesh

Answer: (B) Nalanda was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India. It was a Buddhist center of learning from the fifth or sixth century CE to 1197 CE. Nalan da flourished between the reign of the Chakraditya (whose identity is uncertain and who might have been either Kumara Gupta I or Kumara Gupta II) and 1197 CE, supported by patronage from the Hindu Gupta rulers as well as Buddhist emperors like Harsha and later emperors from the Pala Empire 

93. Which event brought about a profound change in Ashoka’s administrative policy? 

(A) The third Buddhist Council 

(B) The Kalinga War 

(C) His embracing of Buddhism 

(D) His sending of missionary to Ceylon 

Answer: (B) Kalinga War was the only major war Ashoka fought after his accession to throne. It is one of the major and bloodiest battles in the history of India. Kalinga put up a stiff resistance, but they were no match for Ashoka’s brutal strength. The bloodshed of this war is said to have prompted Ashoka to adopt Buddhism. 

94. The monk who influenced Ashoka to embrace Buddhism was 

(A) Vishnu Gupta 

(B) Upagupta 

(C) Brahma Gupta 

(D) Brihadratha 

Answer: (B) Upagupta was a Buddhist monk. According to some stories in the Sanskrit Avadana he was the spiritual teacher of Asoka the great Mauryan emperor. Upagup ta’s teacher was Sanavasi who was a disciple of Anan da, the Buddha’s attendant. Due to the absence of his name in Theravada literature it is assumed that Upagupta was a Sarvadin monk. 

95. Harshvardhana was defeated by 

(A) Prabhakaravardhana 

(B) Pulakesin II 

(C) Narasimhasvarma Pallava 

(D) Sasanka 

Answer: (B) In 630 BC, Harshavardhana faced defeat at the hands of Pulakesin II, the Chalukya King of Vatapi, in Northern Karnataka. The defeat resulted in a truce between the two kings, with Harsha accepting River Narmada as the southern boundary for his kingdom. 

96. Which of the following state ments about the Guptas is NOT true ? 

(A) They ruled mainly over parts of north and central India 

(B) Kingship was hereditary and the throne always went to the eldest son 

(C) The judicial system was far more developed than in earlier times 

(D) Land taxes increased and taxes on trade and commerce decreased 

Answer: (B) Kingship was hereditary. Though succession to the throne was generally decided by law of primogen iture, that is, the eldest son succeeding his father, there were many exceptions to this rule. Sometimes kings were even elected by nobles and councillors. As head of the government, the King was overseer of all administrative activities of his realm. He was the supreme judge, and he usually led his army to the battlefields. 

97. Which of the following was NOT composed by Harshavadhana? 

(A) Harshacharita 

(B) Ratnavali 

(C) Priyadarshika 

(D) Nagananda 

Answer: (A) The Harshacharita, is the biography of Indian Emperor Harsha by Banabhatta, also known as Bana, who was a Sanskrit writer of 7th century in India. He was the ‘Asthana Kavi’, meaning ‘Court Poet’, of King Harsha. 

98. Which of the following is not one of the animals carved on the Sarnath Pillar ? 

(A) Humped Bull 


(C) Elephant 

(D) Horse 

Answer: (B) Ashoka built the Sarnath pillar to commemorate the site of the first preaching of Lord Buddha, where he taught the Dharma to five monks. The Lion Capital of Ashoka comprises four lions, standing back to back, mounted on a cylindrical abacus. The abacus features the sculptures of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull, and a lion, separated by intervening 24-spoked Dharma wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. The four animals in the Sarnath capital are believed to symbol ize different phases in Lord Buddha’s life. The Ele phant is a representation of Queen Maya’s concep tion of Buddha when she saw a white elephant enter ing her womb in dream. The Bull represents desire during the life of the Buddha as a prince. The Horse symbolizes Buddha’s departure from palatial life while the Lion represents the attainment of Nirvana by Lord Buddha. 

99. The ‘Kannauj assembly’ organised by Harsha was held in honour of 

(A) Fa-Hien 

(B) Itsing 

(C) Hieun-Tsang 

(D) Megasthenes 

Answer: (C) The convocation of an assembly at Kannauj was one of the most significant events of the reign of Har sha. The purpose of this assembly was to simplify the doctrines of Mahayanism. This assembly was con vened in 643 A.D. It was attended by kings of eigh teen countries, 3000 Brahmanas and Jains, 3000 Buddhist monks of Mahayana and Hinayana sects and 1000 Buddhist monks of Nalanda Vihara. The famous Chinese traveler, Hiuen Tsang was also present and presided the assembly. 

100. The first metal used by man was 

(A) Aluminium 

(B) Copper 

(C) Iron 

(D) Silver 

Answer: (B) The first two metals to be used widely were gold and copper. The use of copper in antiquity is of more significance than gold as the first tools, implements and weapons were made from copper. From 4,000 to 6,000 BC was the Chalcolithic period which was when copper came into common use. By 3600 BC the first copper smelted artifacts were found in the Nile valley and copper rings, bracelets, chisels were found. By 3000 BC weapons, tools etc. were widely found. Tools and weapons of utilitarian value were now within so ciety, however, only kings and royalty had such tools; it would take another 500 years before they reached the peasants. 

101. Which of the following Vedas deals with magic spells and witchcraft? 

(a) Rigveda 

(b) Samaveda 

(c) Yajurveda 

(d) Atharvaveda 

Answer: (d) Atharvaveda 

102. The later Vedic Age means the age of the compilation of 

(a) Samhitas 

(b) Brahmanas 

(c) Aranyakas 

(d) All the above 

Answer: (d) 

103. The Vedic religion along with its Later (Vedic) developments is actually  known as

(a) Hinduism 

(b) Brahmanism 

(c) Bhagavatism 

(d) Vedic Dharma 

Answer: (b) Brahmanism


104. The Vedic Aryans first settled in the region of 

(a) Central India 

(b) Gangetic Doab 

(c) Saptasindhu 

(d) Kashmir and Punjab 

Answer: (c) Saptasindhu 

105. Which of the following contains the famous Gayatrimantra? 

(a) Rigveda 

(b) Samaveda 

(c) Kathopanishad 

(d) Aitareya Brahmana  

Answer: (a) Rigveda 

106. The famous Gayatrimantra is addressed to 

(a) Indra 

(b) Varuna 

(c) Pashupati 

(d) Savita


Answer: (d) Savita

107. Two highest ,gods in the Vedic religion were 

(a) Agni and Savitri 

(b) Vishnu and Mitra 

(c) Indra and Varuna 

(d) Surya and Pushan 

Answer: (c) Indra and Varuna

108. Division of the Vedic society into four classes is clearly mentioned in the 

(a) Yajurveda 

(b) Purusa-sukta of Rigveda 

(c) Upanishads 

(d) Shatapatha Brahmana 

Answer: (b) Purusa-sukta of Rigveda

109. This Vedic God was 'a breaker of the forts' and also a 'war god' 

(a) Indra 

(b) Yama 

(c) Marut 

(d) Varuna 

Answer: (a) Indra 

110. The Harappan or Indus Valley Civilisation flourished during the ____ age. 

(a) Megalithic 

(b) Paleolithic 

(c) Neolithic

(d) Chalcolithic 

Answer: (d) Chalcolithic 

111. The first metal to be extensively used by the people in India was 

(a) Bronze 

(b) Copper 

(c) Iron 

(d) Tin 

Answer: (b) Copper

112. Which of the following civilisations is net associated with the Harappan Civilisation? 

(a) Mesopotamian 

(b) Egyptian 

(c) Sumerian 

(d) Chinese 

Answer: (d) Chinese 

113. Of the following scholars who was the first to discover the traces of the Harappan Civilisation? 

(a) Sir John Marshall

(b) RD Banerji 

(c) A Cunningham 

(d) Daya Ram Sahani


Answer: (d) Daya Ram Sahani 

114. The Harappan Civilisation achieved far greater advancement than Sumer, Elam etc. on account of its 

(a) town planning 

(b) metal working 

(c) weights and measures 

(d) seals and figures 

Answer: (a) town planning 

115. The town planning in the Harappan Civilisation was inspired by a regard  for 

(a) beauty and utility 

(b) uniformity 

(c) sanitation and public health 

(d) demographic factor 

Answer: (c) sanitation and public health

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