Discuss the following techniques of Scientific Work-Study:

Discuss the following techniques of Scientific Work-Study:

(a) Time Study

(b) Motion Study

(c) Fatigue Study

(d) Method Study

(e) Simplification and standardisation of work.


(a) Time Study- In this technique, Taylor emphasised setting a standard time limit for completing any particular job. Time measuring devices are used for each element of the task. The standard time is fixed for the whole of the task by taking several readings. The method of time study will depend upon the volume and frequency of the task, the cycle time of the operation and time measurement costs. The objective of the time study is to determine the number of workers to be employed; frame suitable incentive schemes and determine labour costs. For example, if, on the basis of observations it is determined that one person can finish making 1 shirt in two hours then, in a working day of 8 hours, each worker should make 4 shirts.

(b) Motion Study- As the name suggests, motion study refers to the study of motion (movements) involved while undertaking a task. This technique aims at removing the unwanted actions/motions so that the work can be completed in a lesser time. Taylor along with his associate Frank Gailberth observed the motions of a worker and categorized them as productive, incidental and unproductive. They demonstrated that by eliminating the unproductive movements productivity can be increased. For example, in brick layering, they demonstrated that productivity increased by nearly 4 times by reducing the motions from 18 to 5.

(c) Fatigue Study- This technique is regarding the requirement of rest or breaks during work. If a worker works continuously physical and mental fatigue sets. This reduces his/her efficiency. Thus, the worker requires rest or break. Fatigue study identifies the intervals required while completing a task. It suggests that standard break timings should be decided for improving the working performance of workers.

(d) Method Study- This study aims at finding out the best method of completing any work. It takes into account each and every activity involved in the task. It helps in reducing costs and maximizing the satisfaction of the customers. Assembly line production, used by Ford Motors is a popular example of method study.

(e) Simplification and Standardisation of Work- Taylor holds up standardisation as the very basis of techniques of scientific management. Standardisation as the word suggests implies setting milestones or benchmarks for any work or activity. Various other techniques by Taylor, such as method study, fatigue study and time study are also based on the concept of standardisation. The objectives of standardisation are:

(i) To reduce a given line or product to fixed types, sizes and characteristics.

(ii) To establish interchangeability of manufactured parts and products.

(iii) To establish standards of excellence and quality in materials.

(iv) To establish standards of performance of men and machines. Simplification on the other hand means eliminating any unnecessary diversifications in the product. It aims at fuller utilisation of the resources, reducing inventories and increasing the turnover. It helps in reducing the costs of labour and machines. This technique helps in optimum utilisation of resources and removes unnecessary costs.

Discuss the following techniques of Scientific Work-Study:

More Question

  1. Is planning actually worth the huge costs involved? Explain
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  3. How can (i) Political climate and (ii) Policies of competitors obstruct planning?
  4. What is meant by budget?
  5. 'Planning reduces creativity. How?
  6. Give the meaning of ‘Strategy’ and ‘Rule’ as types of plans. (CBSE BOARD 2017)
  7. Ramnath Ltd. is dealing in the import of organic food items in bulk. The company sells the items in smaller quantities in attractive packages. Performance of the company has been up to the expectations in the past. Keeping up with the latest packaging technology, the company decided to upgrade its machinery
  8. Give the meaning of 'procedure' and 'rule' as types of plans. (CBSE BOARD 2017 )
  9. What do you mean by planning premises?
  10. Somnath Ltd. is engaged in the business of export of garments. In the past, the performance of the company had been up to the expectations. In line with the latest technology, the company decided to upgrade its machinery. For this, the Finance Manager, Dalmia estimated the number of funds required and the timings
  11. 'Planning is the basic function of management. Comment
  12. 'Planning focuses on achieving objectives. Explain
  13. Explain any three features of 'Planning.' (CBSE BOARD 2017)
  14. Explain the first three steps in the process of 'Planning'. (CBSE BOARD 2016)
  15. Enumerate six points of importance of planning
  16. State any three limitations of the planning function of management. (CBSE BOARD 2016)
  17. It is deciding in advance what to do and how to do it. It is one of the basic managerial functions. It requires that before doing something, the manager must formulate an idea of how to work on a particular task
  18. Define 'Strategy' ( CBSE Question)
  19. Define 'Objective'? ( CBSE Question)
  20. Which is the most crucial step in the planning process?
  21. How does planning create rigidity?
  22. Name and state the aspect of financial management that enables to foresee the fund requirements both in terms of ‘the quantum’ and ‘in terms of the timings'
  23. What all qualities are required for doing planning?
  24. What is planning?  Question Answer
  25. Give the meaning of 'Method' as a type of plan. (CBSE BOARD 2015)
  26. Briefly discuss the impact of government policy changes on the business and industry
  27. Explain any five ways in which managers have responded to changes in a business environment
  28. 'Explain 'fiscal reforms' and 'monetary reforms' as per economic change initiated by the Government of India since 1991
  29. Explain any five negative impacts of liberalization and globalization
  30. Enumerate any ten Positive impacts of liberalization and globalization.
  31. The social environment of business is important for a business enterprise". Explain?
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  33. Mention four examples of acquisitions and mergers
  34. Business environment or Environmental Scanning helps in the identification of threats and early warning signals." Explain?
  35. Enumerate the benefits of understanding the business environment
  36. A recent rate cut in the interest on loans announced by the Banks encouraged Amit, a science student of Progressive School to take a loan from the State Bank of India to experiment and develop cars to be powered by fuel produced from garbage. He developed such a car and exhibited it in the Science Fair organised by Directorate of Education. He was awarded first prize for his invention.
  37. Explain the role of the political environment in shaping the business?
  38. With the change in the consumption habits of people, Neelesh, who was running, a sweets shop shifted to the chocolate business. On the eve of Diwali, he offered chocolates in attractive packages at reasonable prices. He anticipated huge demand and created a website chocolove.com for taking orders online. He got a lot of orders online and earned huge profits by selling chocolates
  39. ‘Accent Electronics Ltd.’ was operating its business in Malaysia. The company started exporting its products to India when the Prime Minister announced a relaxation in import duties on electronic items. The company appointed retailers in India who had direct online links which the suppliers to replenish stocks when needed
  40. An environmental conscious multinational company "AXN Ltd." follows certain well-defined business principles that result to minimize employee turnover. Following are some of the important environmental factors followed by 'AXN Ltd.'
  41. Give one measure taken by the Indian Government to introduce liberalization.
  42. What do you mean by disinvestment?
  43. Name the economic reforms introduced to free Indian businesses from unnecessary controls and restrictions
  44. What do you mean by Innovation?
  45. Which policy of the Indian Government has moved India towards globalization?
  46. What do you mean by Globalization?
  47. What is meant by opportunities?

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