Explain in brief the techniques of scientific management

Explain in brief the techniques of scientific management.

Answer: (i). Functional Foremanship: F.W. Taylor has propounded the functional organisation. This form of organisation is totally based on the principle of specialisation and makes full utilisation of the expertise of various experts. In a functional organisation, work is divided into many small parts and each part is assigned to an expert. In this manner, all the benefits of specialisation are availed of.

(ii). Standardisation of Work: Standardisation means setting standards for different factors, after due deliberation. For example, the amount of work to be done by a worker in a day may be standardised. In other words, the worker is expected to do the standard amount of work every day. In the same manner, standards may also be set for raw materials, machines and tools, techniques, conditions of work, etc.

(iii). Simplification: Simplification means putting an end to the unnecessary types, qualities, sizes/weights, etc. For example, it is all right for a shoe manufacturing company to manufacture shoes of 0, 1, 2, 3,4,5 ....... sizes but if it starts manufacturing shoes of 0, 0.5, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2, 2.25, 2.5, 2.75, 3..... it will be simply wrong. There is no justification for the difference of such sizes. In such a situation different types of machines shall have to be installed, more stock shall have to be maintained and increased labour costs shall have to be borne. Therefore, it is advisable to manufacture shoes only of the proper sizes. In other words, simplification of the product is the answer.

(iv). Scientific Study of Work: It means conducting a deep analysis of all the activities being performed in the organisation with the aim of producing maximum possible quality output at minimum costs. Taylor has conducted the following studies:

a). Method Study: It refers to identifying the most suitable way to do a particular activity.

b). Motion Study: It refers to conducting the study of motions being performed by workers and machines while doing the job so that unnecessary motions can be eliminated.

c). Time Study: It refers to determining the standard time required to complete a particular activity.

d). Fatigue Study: It refers to determining the duration and frequency of rest intervals to complete a particular job.

(v). Differential Wage System: Taylor has advised the adoption of differential wage systems in order to motivate the employees. According to this system, wages are paid on the basis of work done and not on the basis of time spent in doing the work. In this system, two different wage rates are used: one is the high wage rate and the other is the low wage rate. Those workers who are able to produce the standard number of units within a fixed duration are paid as per the high wage rate, and those workers who are not able to produce the standard number of units within the same time are paid as per the lower wage rate.

Explain in brief the techniques of scientific management

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