How are management principles derived?
Answer: Management principles have emerged gradually, through an evolutionary process of combining deep observations and experimental studies.
(i) Observation method Under this method, managerial researchers derive management principles to observe and analyze practical events. For example, it was observed that by dividing the work into different units, the efficiency of employees improved. As a result, it led to the formulation of the principle of 'division of labour'.
(ii) Experimental method
Under this method, experiments are conducted so that management principles can be derived and their validity can be tested. For example, two units, one unit involving one superior and one subordinate and the other unit involving two superiors and one subordinate, were taken. It was found that units having one superior and one subordinate performed better. As a result, it led to the formation of the principle of "unity of command." From the above, it can be concluded that observations and experiments result in the formulation of management principles, which therefore are evolutionary. Hence, derivation of management principles can be said to be a matter of Science. It is worth mentioning here that even though the derivation of management principles is a matter of science; their application remains a matter of art. The success of managers depends upon how skillfully they put these principles into practice.
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