Question: Like Germany, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Justify.
Answer: Yes, it is true that Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. It is said so because –
1. The population of Italy was divided according to several dynasties and Multi-national Habsburg Empire. Italy was divided into seven states – like Sardinia- Piedmont was the only region ruled by Italian princely house, Pope ruled the Centre, North was ruled by Austria Habsburgs and southern regions was ruled by Bourbon Kings of Spain.
2. There was not one Italian language or a common Italian language instead it had many regional and local variations which show that Italy was not unified in terms of culture. All this shows that Italy like Germany was politically fragmented and was unstable.