Question: Give an account of Gandhiji’s efforts to secure justice for the poor indigo sharecroppers of Champaran. [CBSE (AI) 2012]
Answer: Gandhiji went to Champaran on receiving reports of exploitation of the poor sharecropper peasants at the hands of British planters. He began by trying to get the facts. The British landlords as well as the commissioner of Tirhut were non-cooperative. Lawyers from Muzaffarpur briefed him about the court cases of these peasants. Gandhiji and the lawyers collected depositions by about ten thousand peasants. Notes were made on other evidence. Documents were collected. The whole area throbbed with the activities of the investigators and forceful protests of landlords. The lieutenant governor summoned Gandhiji. After four protracted interviews, an official commission of enquiry was appointed to look into the indigo sharecroppers’ situation. Gandhiji was the sole representative of the peasants. The official enquiry assembled a huge quantity of evidence against the big planters. They agreed in principle to make refunds to the peasants. After consolation, a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers was agreed upon. This was a moral victory for the peasants. They recognised their rights and became courageous. Within a few years, the British planters gave up their estates. These now went back to the peasants. They became the master of the land. Thus, indigo sharecropping disappeared.
- What ideology does Aunt Jennifer’s poem propound?
- Greed is the greatest evil force that has tempted man into doing a lot of misdeeds
- How can we transform and clean an evil-doing person? Give example from the story
- Have you known/heard of an episode where a good deed or an act of kindness has changed a person’s view of the world?
- The story ‘The Rattrap’ focuses on human loneliness and the need to bond with others. Explain
- The story also focuses on human loneliness and the need to bond with others
- Why did the crofter repose confidence in the peddler? How did the peddler betray that and with what consequences?
- How did the peddler betray the confidence reposed in him by the crofter in ‘The Rattrap’?
- Edla proved to be much more persuasive than her father while dealing with the peddler. Comment.
- The peddler declined the invitation of the ironmaster but accepted the one from Edla. Why?
- Describe the peddler’s meeting with the ironmaster. Why did he decline his invitation?
- Attempt a character sketch of the peddler in the story ‘The Rattrap’
- The peddler enjoys the sympathy of readers right from the beginning of the story. Draw a character sketch of the peddler justifying the sympathy he generates among the readers.
- Do you think the title ‘The Rattrap’ is appropriate? Give examples from the text in support of your view
- Describe the events which led to the change in the peddler’s way of life
- 'All' we have to fear is fear itself. When did Douglas learn this lesson?
- What deep meaning did his experience at the YMCA swimming pool have for Douglas?
- Mention any two long term consequences of the drowning incident on Douglas
- How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?
- What efforts did Douglas make to get over his fear of water?
- Why did Douglas go to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire? How did he make his terror flee?
- Which factors led Douglas to decide in favour of the Y.M.C.A. pool?
- Why did Douglas go to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire?
- What sort of terror seized Douglas as he went down the water with a yellow glow? How could he feel that he was still alive?
- When Douglas realised that he was sinking, how did he plan to save himself?